The Welfare of Farmed Animals (England) Regulations 2000
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The text of this Internet version of the Statutory Instrument has been prepared to reflect the text as it was Made. The authoritative version is the Queen's Printer copy published by The Stationery Office Limited as the The Welfare of Farmed Animals (England) Regulations 2000, ISBN 0 11 099593 7, £3.00 sterling. For details of how to obtain an official copy see How to obtain The Stationery Office Limited titles.
PREVENTION OF CRUELTY, ENGLAND
The Welfare of Farmed Animals (England) Regulations 2000
The Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, in exercise of the powers conferred by section 2 of the Agriculture (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1968 and vested in him, and after consultation (in accordance with section 2 of the said 1968 Act), with such persons appearing to him to represent any interests concerned as he has considered appropriate, hereby makes the following Regulations, a draft of which has been approved by resolution of each House of Parliament:
Title, commencement and extent
Interpretation and application
(b) animals whilst at, and animals solely intended for use in, competitions, shows, cultural or sporting events or activities;
(c) experimental or laboratory animals; or
(d) any invertebrate animals.
(4) In these Regulations -
(b) any reference to a numbered Schedule is a reference to the Schedule to these Regulations so numbered in these Regulations;
(c) any reference in a regulation or a Schedule to a numbered paragraph is a reference to the paragraph so numbered in the regulation or Schedule in which the reference occurs; and
(d) any reference to an instrument of the European Community is to
that instrument as amended at the time these Regulations are made.
3. - (1) Owners and keepers of animals shall take all reasonable steps -
(b) to ensure that the animals are not caused any unnecessary pain,
suffering or injury.
(3) In deciding whether the conditions under which animals are being bred or kept comply with the requirements set out in Schedule 1, the owner and keeper of the animals shall have regard to their species, and to their degree of development, adaptation and domestication, and to their physiological and ethological needs in accordance with established experience and scientific knowledge.
Additional duties on owners and keepers of laying hens kept in battery
Additional duties on owners and keepers of poultry (other than laying
hens kept in battery cages)
Additional duties on owners and keepers of calves confined for rearing
Additional duties on owners and keepers of cattle
Additional duties on owners and keepers of pigs
(b) the requirements set out in Parts III, IV, V or VI of Schedule
6 (as the case may be) applicable to the particular category of pig being
9. Owners and keepers of rabbits shall ensure that, in addition to the requirements set out in Schedule 1, the conditions under which the animals are kept comply with the requirements set out in Schedule 7.
Statutory welfare codes
(b) has access to a copy of those codes while he is attending to the animals; and
(c) has received instruction and guidance on those codes.
Powers of an authorised person
Powers of entry
(c) Council Directive 91/630/EEC laying down minimum standards for the protection of pigs; or
(d) Council Directive 98/58/EC
concerning the protection of animals kept for farming purposes;
(b) fails to comply with a notice served under regulation 11 within the time specified in the notice;
(c) makes any entry in a record, or gives any information for the purposes of these Regulations which he knows to be false in any material particular or, for those purposes, recklessly makes a statement or gives any information which is false in any material particular; or
(d) causes or permits any of the above,
(2) In any proceedings against an owner or keeper of animals for a failure to comply with regulation 3(1) or 3(2) (as read with regulation 3(3)), the owner or keeper, as the case may be, may rely on his compliance with any relevant recommendation contained in a statutory welfare code as tending to establish his compliance with the relevant regulation.
18th July 2000
GENERAL CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH FARMED ANIMALS MUST BE KEPT
(2) Subject to sub-paragraph (3), animals kept in systems other than husbandry systems in which their welfare depends on frequent human attention shall be inspected at intervals sufficient to avoid any suffering.
(3) Notwithstanding sub-paragraphs (1) and (2),
in the following cases, it shall be sufficient for the purposes of this
paragraph to comply with the following specific provisions -
(b) in the case of calves, paragraphs 3 and 4 of Schedule 4; and
(c) in the case of pigs, paragraph 2 of Schedule 6.
4. Where any animals (other than poultry) are kept in a building they shall be kept on, or have access at all times to, a lying area which either has well-maintained dry bedding or is well-drained.
5. Any animals which appear to be ill or
(b) where they do not respond to such care, veterinary advice shall
be obtained as soon as possible.
(2) Notwithstanding sub-paragraph (1), in the
following cases, it shall be sufficient for the purposes of this paragraph
to comply with the following specific provisions -
(b) in the case of pigs, paragraph 3 of Schedule 6.
7. A record shall be maintained of -
(b) the number of mortalities found on each inspection of animals
carried out in accordance with any of the following provisions -
(ii) in the case of calves, paragraph 3 or 4 of Schedule 4;
(iii) in the case of pigs, paragraph 2 of Schedule 6; or
(iv) in any other case, paragraph 2 of this Schedule.
Freedom of movement
10. Where animals are continuously or regularly tethered or confined, they shall be given the space appropriate to their physiological and ethological needs in accordance with established experience and scientific knowledge.
Buildings and accommodation
12. Accommodation and fittings for securing animals shall be constructed and maintained so that there are no sharp edges or protrusions likely to cause injury to them.
13. Air circulation, dust levels, temperature, relative air humidity and gas concentrations shall be kept within limits which are not harmful to the animals.
14. Animals kept in buildings shall not be kept in permanent darkness.
15. Where the natural light available in a building is insufficient to meet the physiological and ethological needs of any animals being kept in it then appropriate artificial lighting shall be provided.
16. Animals kept in buildings shall not be kept without an appropriate period of rest from artificial lighting.
Animals not kept in buildings
Automatic or mechanical equipment
19. Where defects in automated or mechanical equipment of the type referred to in paragraph 18 are discovered, these shall be rectified immediately, or if this is impossible, appropriate steps shall be taken to safeguard the health and well-being of the animals pending the rectification of such defects including the use of alternative methods of feeding and watering and methods of providing and maintaining a satisfactory environment.
20. Where the health and well-being of the
animals is dependent on an artificial ventilation system -
(b) an alarm system (which will operate even if the principal electricity
supply to it has failed) shall be provided to give warning of any failure
of the system.
Feed, water and other substances
23. No animals shall be provided with food or liquid in a manner, nor shall such food or liquid contain any substance, which may cause them unnecessary suffering or injury.
24. All animals shall have access to feed at intervals appropriate to their physiological needs (and, in any case, at least once a day), except where a veterinary surgeon acting in the exercise of his profession otherwise directs.
25. All animals shall either have access to a suitable water supply and be provided with an adequate supply of fresh drinking water each day or be able to satisfy their fluid intake needs by other means.
26. Feeding and watering equipment shall be designed, constructed, placed and maintained so that contamination of food and water and the harmful effects of competition between animals are minimised.
27. No other substance, with the exception of those given for therapeutic or prophylactic purposes or for the purpose of zootechnical treatment shall be administered to animals unless it has been demonstrated by scientific studies of animal welfare or established experience that the effect of that substance is not detrimental to the health or welfare of the animals.
(2) Sub-paragraph (1) shall not preclude the use of natural or artificial breeding procedures that are likely to cause minimal or momentary suffering or injury or that might necessitate interventions which would not cause lasting injury.
29. No animals shall be kept for farming purposes unless it can reasonably be expected, on the basis of their genotype or phenotype, that they can be kept without detrimental effect on their health or welfare.
ADDITIONAL CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH LAYING HENS KEPT IN BATTERY CAGES MUST BE KEPT
1. All cages must comply with the following
(ii) 750 cm2 where two hens are kept in the cage;
(iii) 550 cm2 where three hens are kept in the cage; and
(iv) 450 cm2 where four or more hens are kept in the cage;
(c) a feed trough of a length not less than 10 cm multiplied by the number of hens in the cage and capable of being used without restriction shall be provided;
(d) except where nipple drinkers and drinking cups are provided, the cage shall have a continuous drinking channel which shall not be less than 10 cm multiplied by the number of hens in the cage, and capable of being used without restriction;
(e) where drinking points are plumbed in, there shall be a minimum of two nipple drinkers or two drinking cups within reach of the cage;
(f) the height of the cage, for 65% of its area, shall be not less than 40 cm, and, for the remainder of the area, shall be not less than 35 cm (the height being obtained by a vertical line from the floor to the nearest point in the roof and the area being obtained by multiplying 450cm2 by the number of birds kept in the cage);
(g) the floor of the cage shall be constructed so as to support adequately each of the forward facing claws of each foot; and
(h) the slope of the floor shall not exceed 14% or 8 degrees, when
made of rectangular wire mesh, and 21.3% or 12 degrees for other types
3. The design and size of the cage opening must be such that laying hens can be put in or taken out without causing injury or unnecessary suffering.
4. The cages must be suitably equipped and maintained to prevent escape.
5. Except where therapeutic or prophylactic treatment demands otherwise, all laying hens shall have access to adequate, nutritious and hygienic feed each day in sufficient quantity to maintain them in good health and to satisfy their nutritional needs, and to adequate fresh drinking water at all times.
6. The laying hens shall be cared for by personnel with adequate knowledge and experience of the production system used.
7. The flock or group of laying hens shall be inspected thoroughly at least once a day and a source of light (whether fixed or portable) shall be available which is strong enough for each bird to be seen clearly.
8. Accommodation comprising more than three tiers of cages shall not be used unless suitable devices or measures make it possible to inspect thoroughly all tiers without difficulty.
9. - (1) When laying hens do not appear to be in good health or show behavioural changes, steps shall be taken to establish the cause and appropriate remedial action shall be taken.
(2) Where remedial action is required to be taken
under sub-paragraph (1) above, consideration shall be given to the following
types of action -
(d) correction of environmental factors; and
(e) any other form of remedial action which might be necessary.
10. - (1) Every time all the cages housed together are emptied they shall be thoroughly cleansed and disinfected before the next batch of laying hens is put in.
(2) While the cages are occupied, the surfaces
and all equipment shall be kept satisfactorily clean.
ADDITIONAL CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH POULTRY (OTHER THAN LAYING HENS KEPT IN BATTERY CAGES) MUST BE KEPT
Where any poultry (other than laying hens kept in battery cages)
are kept in a building, they shall be kept on, or have access at all times
to, well-maintained litter or to a well-drained area for resting.
ADDITIONAL CONDITIONS THAT APPLY TO THE KEEPING OF CALVES CONFINED FOR REARING AND FATTENING
(2) The width of any individual stall or pen for a calf shall be at least equal to the height of the calf at the withers, measured in the standing position, and the length shall be at least equal to the body length of the calf, measured from the tip of the nose to the caudal edge of the tuber ischii (pin bone), multiplied by 1.1.
(3) Individual stalls or pens for calves (except for those isolating sick animals) shall have perforated walls which allow calves to have direct visual and tactile contact.
(4) For calves kept in groups, the unobstructed
space allowance available to each calf shall be -
(b) at least 2 square metres for each calf with a live weight of 150 kg or more but less than 200 kg; and
(c) at least 3 square metres for each calf with a live weight of
200 kg or more.
(6) Subject to sub-paragraphs (7) and (8), each calf that is kept on a holding on which two or more calves are kept shall be able to see at least one other calf.
(7) Sub-paragraph (6) shall not apply to any calf that is kept in isolation on a holding on veterinary advice.
(8) For the purpose of calculating the number of calves being kept on a holding in order to determine whether sub-paragraph (6) applies, no account shall be taken of any calf that is being kept in isolation on that holding on veterinary advice.
Transitional provisions for accommodation
(2) Until 1st January 2004, in the case of accommodation
brought into use after 1st January 1994 but before 1st January 1998 -
(b) where a calf is housed in an individual stall or pen, the stall
or pen shall have at least one perforated wall which enables the calf to
see other animals in neighbouring stalls and pens unless isolated for veterinary
3. All housed calves shall be inspected by the owner or keeper of the calves at least twice a day to check that they are in a state of well-being.
4. Calves which are kept outside shall be inspected by the owner or keeper of the calves at least once a day to check that they are in a state of well-being.
5. Where necessary, sick or injured calves shall be isolated in suitable accommodation with dry comfortable bedding.
(2) Where tethers are used in accordance with the preceding sub-paragraph, they shall not cause pain or injury to the calves and shall be inspected regularly and adjusted as necessary to ensure a comfortable fit.
(3) Each tether shall be designed to avoid the risk of strangulation or pain or injury and allow the calf to lie down, rest, stand up and groom itself without hindrance.
Artificially lit buildings
Cleaning and disinfection
(2) Faeces, urine and uneaten or spilt food shall be removed as often as necessary to minimise smell and to avoid attracting flies or rodents.
(b) be so designed as not to cause injury or suffering to calves standing or lying on them;
(c) be suitable for the size and weight of the calves; and
(d) form a rigid, even and stable surface.
10. - (1) All calves shall be provided with appropriate bedding.
(2) All calves shall be kept on, or at all times have access to, a lying area which is clean, comfortable and well-drained and which does not adversely affect the calves.
(3) All housed calves and calves kept in hutches or temporary structures shall be kept on, or at all times have access to, a lying area which is well-maintained with dry bedding.
Additional dietary requirements
(2) A minimum daily ration of fibrous food shall be provided for each calf over 2 weeks old, the quantity being raised in line with the growth of the calf from a minimum of 100 g at 2 weeks old to a minimum of 250 g at 20 weeks old.
(2) Where calves are housed in a group and do not have continuous access to feed, or are not fed by an automatic feeding system, each calf shall have access to food at the same time as the others in the feeding group.
(2) Calves shall be provided with fresh drinking
water at all times -
(b) when they are ill.
ADDITIONAL CONDITIONS THAT APPLY TO THE KEEPING OF CATTLE
1. Where any lactating dairy cows or any cows which are calving are kept in any roofed accommodation they shall have access at all times to a well-drained and bedded lying area.
2. Where any cows which are calving are
kept in a building, they shall be kept -
(b) separate from other livestock other than calving cows.
ADDITIONAL CONDITIONS THAT APPLY TO THE KEEPING OF PIGS
1. In this Schedule -
GENERAL ADDITIONAL CONDITIONS
3. Where necessary, sick or injured pigs shall be isolated in suitable accommodation with dry comfortable bedding.
5. - (1) Where the use of tethers is permitted in accordance with paragraph 4, they shall not cause injury to the pigs and shall be inspected regularly and adjusted as necessary to ensure a comfortable fit.
(2) Each tether shall be of sufficient length to allow the pigs to move as stipulated in paragraph 6(2) below and the design shall be such as to avoid, as far as possible, any risk of strangulation, pain or injury.
(2) The accommodation used for pigs shall be constructed
in such a way as to allow each pig to -
(b) have a clean place in which it can rest; and
(c) see other pigs, unless the pig is isolated for veterinary reasons.
(2) This paragraph shall not apply in relation to a female pig for the period between seven days before the predicted day of her farrowing and the day on which the weaning of her piglets (including any piglets fostered by her) is complete.
(3) A person shall not be guilty of an offence
in accordance with regulation 13(1) of contravening or failing to comply
with this paragraph by reason of the keeping of a pig in a stall or pen
(b) for the purposes of service, artificial insemination or collection of semen;
(c) while it is fed on any particular occasion;
(d) for the purposes of marking, washing or weighing it;
(e) while its accommodation is being cleaned; or
(f) while it is awaiting loading for transportation,
(4) A person shall not be guilty of an offence in accordance with regulation 13(1) of contravening or failing to comply with this paragraph by reason of the keeping of a pig in a stall or pen which the pig can enter or leave at will, provided that the stall or pen is entered from a stall or pen in which the pig is kept without contravention of this paragraph.
Artificially lit buildings
Prevention of fighting
(2) Pigs which show persistent aggression towards others or are victims of such aggression shall be isolated or kept separate from the group.
Cleaning and disinfection
(2) Faeces, urine and uneaten or spilt food must be removed as often as necessary to minimise smell and avoid attracting flies or rodents.
(2) Where bedding is provided, this must be clean, dry and not harmful to the pigs.
(b) be so designed as not to cause injury or suffering to pigs standing or lying on them;
(c) be suitable for the size and weight of the pigs; and
(d) form a rigid, even and stable surface.
13. - (1) All pigs must be fed at least once a day.
(2) Where pigs are housed in a group and do not have continuous access to feed, or are not fed by an automatic feeding system, each pig must have access to the food at the same time as the others in the feeding group.
Prohibition on the use of the sweat-box system
17. Boar pens shall be sited and constructed so as to allow the boar to turn round and to hear, see and smell other pigs, and shall contain clean resting areas.
18. The lying area shall be dry and comfortable.
19. The minimum pen size for an adult boar
shall be six square metres, except that a larger area shall be provided
when pens are used for service.
SOWS AND GILTS
20. Gilts and sows between weaning their piglets and the perinatal period shall, where necessary, be treated against external and internal parasites.
21. If they are placed in farrowing crates, pregnant sows and gilts shall be thoroughly clean.
22. Gilts and sows between weaning their piglets and the perinatal period shall be provided with a clean, adequately drained, comfortable lying area and shall, if necessary, be given suitable nesting material.
23. During farrowing, an unobstructed area behind the sow or gilt shall be available for the ease of natural or assisted farrowing.
24. Farrowing pens where sows are kept loose
must have some means of protecting the piglets, such as farrowing rails.
25. If necessary, piglets shall be provided with a source of heat and a solid, dry and comfortable lying area away from the sow where all of them can rest at the same time.
26. Where a farrowing crate is used, the piglets shall have sufficient space to enable them to suckle without difficulty.
27. Neither tail docking nor tooth clipping shall be carried out routinely but only when there is evidence, on the farm, that injuries to sows' teats or to other pigs' ears or tails have occurred as a result of not carrying out these procedures.
28. Where tooth clipping appears necessary, this shall only be carried out within seven days of birth.
29. Piglets shall not be weaned from the
sow at an age of less than three weeks unless the welfare or health of
the dam or piglets would otherwise be adversely affected.
WEANERS AND REARING PIGS
30. Pigs shall be placed in groups as soon as possible after weaning. They shall be kept in stable groups with as little mixing as possible.
31. The unobstructed floor area available
to each weaner or rearing pig reared in a group shall be at least -
(b) 0.20 square metres for each pig where the average weight of the pigs in the group is more than 10 kg but less than or equal to 20 kg;
(c) 0.30 square metres for each pig where the average weight of the pigs in the group is more than 20 kg but less than or equal to 30 kg;
(d) 0.40 square metres for each pig where the average weight of the pigs in the group is more than 30 kg but less than or equal to 50 kg;
(e) 0.55 square metres for each pig where the average weight of the pigs in the group is more than 50 kg but less than or equal to 85 kg;
(f) 0.65 square metres for each pig where the average weight of the pigs in the group is more than 85 kg but less than or equal to 110 kg; and
(g) 1.00 square metre for each pig where the average weight of the
pigs in the group is more than 110 kg.
ADDITIONAL CONDITIONS THAT APPLY TO THE KEEPING OF RABBITS
1. Any hutches or cages in which any rabbits
are kept shall be -
(b) of sufficient height to allow the rabbits to sit upright on all
four feet without having their ears touching the top of the hutch or cage.
(This note is not part of the Regulations)
These Regulations, which apply to England only (regulation 1(2)),
revoke and replace (with amendments):
The Regulations apply to all animals kept for farming purposes (subject to certain limited exceptions) (regulation 2(2)).
Regulation 3(1) lays down the general principle that owners and keepers of animals kept for farming purposes must take reasonable steps to ensure the welfare of animals in their care and to prevent them any unnecessary pain, suffering or injury. This principle applies to all animals (including fish, reptiles and amphibians).
The Regulations also provide for general requirements as to the conditions in which all farmed animals (other than fish, reptiles and amphibians) are bred or kept (regulation 3(2) and Schedule 1) and for specific additional requirements as to the conditions in which laying hens kept in battery cages (regulation 4 and Schedule 2), poultry (other than laying hens kept in battery cages) (regulation 5 and Schedule 3), calves (regulation 6 and Schedule 4), cattle (regulation 7 and Schedule 5), pigs (regulation 8 and Schedule 6) and rabbits (regulation 9 and Schedule 7) are bred or kept.
Regulation 10 contains provision to ensure that those in charge of animals have access to copies of the welfare codes issued under section 3 of the Agriculture (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1968 which apply to the animals being bred or kept and that they are acquainted with those codes. Information relating to the welfare codes that have been issued under the 1968 Act may be obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (Animal Welfare Division, Branch A), 5th floor, 1A Page Street, London SW1P 4PQ, or any of the Ministry's Animal Health Divisional Offices. Copies of the codes may be obtained from MAFF Publications, Admail 6000, London SW1A 2XX.
Regulation 11 provides for the service of enforcement notices requiring action to be taken to deal with any breach of the Regulations and regulation 12 provides for a power of entry for persons authorised by the European Commission for the purpose of enforcing Community legislation.
Under regulation 13(1), any contravention of the Regulations is an offence against section 2 of the Agriculture (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1968. Under section 7 of that Act, the maximum penalty for such an offence is 3 months imprisonment and/or a fine at level 4 on the standard scale (currently, £2,500).
Schedule 1, which provides for general requirements as to the conditions in which all farmed animals (other than fish, reptiles and amphibians) are bred or kept, contains a number of changes from corresponding provisions in Schedule 4 of the Welfare of Livestock Regulations 1994 (as amended).
In particular, there are a number of requirements which, under the 1994 Regulations, applied only to either animals kept in intensive systems or animals kept in buildings, but the scope of which is now extended to cover all farmed animals (other than fish, reptiles and amphibians). There are also a number of new requirements.
A Regulatory Impact Assessment has been prepared and placed in the library of each House of Parliament. Copies may be obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (Animal Welfare Division, Branch A), 5th Floor, 1A Page Street, London SW1P 4PQ.
 1968 c. 34. See section 50 for a definition of "the Ministers". In relation to England, the powers of "the Ministers" were transferred to the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food by the Transfer of Functions (Agriculture and Food) Order 1999, S.I. 1999/3141. In relation to Scotland, the powers of the Ministers had previously been transferred to the Scottish Ministers by section 53 of the Scotland Act 1998 (1998 c. 46) and, in relation to Wales, the powers of the Ministers had previously been transferred to the National Assembly for Wales by article 2(a) of the National Assembly for Wales (Transfer of Functions) Order 1999 (S.I. 1999/672).back
 OJ No. L125, 23.5.96, p. 3.back
 1968 c. 34.back
 OJ No. L74, 19.3.88, p. 83.back
 OJ No. L340, 11.12.91, p. 28.back
 OJ No. L25, 28.1.97, p. 24.back
 OJ No. L76, 24.2.97, p. 30.back
 OJ No. L340, 11.12.91, p. 33.back
 OJ No. L221, 8.8.98, p. 23.back
 S.I. 1994/2126, amended by S.I. 1998/1709.back
 S.I. 1998/1709.back
ISBN 0 11 099593 7